Effects of a chicken essence and one of its components, L-carnosine, on the hyperglycemia caused by intracranial injection of 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2DG-hyperglycemia) in unanesthetized rats were examined. The chicken essence inhibited the 2DG-hyperglycemia. Central or peripheral administration of specific doses of L-carnosine reduced the 2DG-hyperglycemia. L-carnosine inhibited neural activities of sympathetic efferent nerves innervating the adrenal gland and liver and facilitated the activity of vagal celiac nerve innervating the pancreas in urethane anesthetized rats. Specific doses of histamine also suppressed the 2DG-hyperglycemia, and thioperamide eliminated the inhibiting actions of both histamine and L-carnosine on the 2DG-hyperglycemia. Considering mammalian muscles contain L-carnosine, these facts suggest a possibility that L-carnosine might be an endogenous control factor of the blood glucose level through autonomic nerves via H3-receptor.