Several lines of evidence suggest that neuropeptide Y (NPY) may exert regulatory effects in local inflammatory responses. Here, we show that intraplantarly (i.pl.) applied NPY, peptide YY (PYY), and an NPY Y5 receptor-selective agonist dose-dependently potentiate concanavalin A (Con A)-induced paw edema in the rat. The NPY Y1 receptor antagonist BIBO 3304 abolishes the pro-inflammatory action of both NPY and PYY while the dipeptidyl-peptidase IV (CD26) inhibitor Ile-thiazolidide exerted synergistic and potentiating effects in vivo. Taken together, the present data reveal an NPY Y1/Y5 receptor interplay and an involvement of CD26 in the NPY-induced potentiation of paw edema in the rat.