Glycogen synthase kinase-3beta (GSK3beta) is a kinase that plays a pivotal role in numerous cellular functions from modulation of microtubule dynamics and cell death. It also affects higher functions such as cognition and mood. Deregulation of GSK3beta activity in the adult brain is implicated in several CNS disorders, such as affective disorders, schizophrenia, stroke and neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). In AD, GSK3beta has a major role in microtubule stability by its ability to phosphorylate the microtubule associated protein tau. The present review focuses on recent developments in the understanding of GSK3beta with an emphasis on events likely to be critical to the pathophysiology of AD.