GLYCOGEN BIOSYNTHETIC PATHWAY (PW:0000532)

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Description

Glycogen - the storage form of glucose - is a ramified polysaccharide formed by alpha1-4 linked glucose units branching at alpha1-6 bonds. Upon uptake into the cell, glucose is rapidly phosphorylated to G6P, a key molecule at the intersection of several pathways of glucose metabolism. In the glycogen biosynthetic pathway, G6P is converted to G1P via the reversible reaction carried out by phosphoglucomutases (Pgm). UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (Ugp2) catalyzes the formation of UDP-glucose

Pathway Diagram:

Ariadne Genomics Inc. Gsk3 Pp-1 complex phosphoglucomutases Pp-1 complex --+> Gys1 Gys1 Pp-1 complex --+> Gys2 Gys2 Gsk3 ---| Gys1 Gsk3 ---| Gys2 glucose-6-phosphate --+> Gys2 glycolysis pathway gluconeogenesis pathway glycogen degradation pathway Gbe1 Gyg1 Ugp2 glycogen (elongated, branched) ---> glucose-6-phosphate glucose-1-phosphate ---> UDP-glucose UDP-glucose ---> glycogen glucose-6-phosphate ---> glycolysis pathway gluconeogenesis pathway ---> glucose-6-phosphate UTP ---> UDP-glucose glucose-1-phosphate <--> glucose-6-phosphate glycogen ---> glycogen (elongated, branched) UDP-glucose ---> glycogen (elongated, branched) glucose-6-phosphate glucose-1-phosphate UTP UDP-glucose glycogen (elongated, branched) glycogen
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Genes in Pathway:

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glycogen biosynthetic pathway term browser
Symbol Object Name JBrowse Chr Start Stop Reference
G Gbe1 1,4-alpha-glucan branching enzyme 1 JBrowse link 11 7,210,169 7,485,895 RGD:1642743
G Gck glucokinase JBrowse link 14 86,149,146 86,191,589 RGD:1582633
G Gsk3a glycogen synthase kinase 3 alpha JBrowse link 1 82,097,244 82,108,238 RGD:2306093
G Gsk3b glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta JBrowse link 11 65,060,884 65,208,842 RGD:2306093
G Gyg1 glycogenin 1 JBrowse link 2 104,916,734 104,958,219 RGD:2303736
RGD:2304070
G Gys1 glycogen synthase 1 JBrowse link 1 101,427,195 101,447,092 RGD:2304106
RGD:1642743
G Gys2 glycogen synthase 2 JBrowse link 4 176,638,632 176,679,805 RGD:1582633
RGD:1642743
RGD:2304106
G Pgm1 phosphoglucomutase 1 JBrowse link 5 118,743,632 118,803,055 RGD:2304188
G Pgm2 phosphoglucomutase 2 JBrowse link 14 45,829,440 45,863,883 RGD:2304188
G Pgm3 phosphoglucomutase 3 JBrowse link 8 94,225,513 94,243,230 RGD:2304188
G Ppp1ca protein phosphatase 1 catalytic subunit alpha JBrowse link 1 219,439,953 219,443,570 RGD:2304325
RGD:2304267
G Ppp1cb protein phosphatase 1 catalytic subunit beta JBrowse link 6 23,548,507 23,581,136 RGD:2304325
RGD:2304267
G Ppp1cc protein phosphatase 1 catalytic subunit gamma JBrowse link 12 39,864,302 39,882,030 RGD:2304325
G Ppp1r3a protein phosphatase 1, regulatory subunit 3A JBrowse link 4 41,171,486 41,212,116 RGD:2304325
G Ppp1r3b protein phosphatase 1, regulatory subunit 3B JBrowse link 16 60,415,192 60,427,498 RGD:2304325
RGD:2306167
RGD:2304267
G Ppp1r3c protein phosphatase 1, regulatory subunit 3C JBrowse link 1 255,371,830 255,376,833 RGD:2306167
G Ppp1r3d protein phosphatase 1, regulatory subunit 3D JBrowse link 3 173,950,613 173,953,684 RGD:2306167
G Ppp1r3e protein phosphatase 1, regulatory subunit 3E JBrowse link 15 33,535,986 33,537,146 RGD:2306166

Additional Elements in Pathway:

(includes Gene Groups, Small Molecules, Other Pathways..etc.)
Object TypePathway ObjectPathway Object Description
Functional Classphosphoglucomutasesmembers of the phosphoglucomutase family
ComplexPp-1 complexthe serine/threonine protein phosphatase 1 complex
Small MoleculeUDP-glucoseuridine diphosphate glucose
Small MoleculeUTPuridine triphosphate

Pathway Gene Annotations

Disease Annotations Associated with Genes in the glycogen biosynthetic pathway
Disease TermsGene Symbols
Aberrant Crypt FociGsk3b
Abnormalities, MultipleGsk3b
Acute Kidney InjuryGsk3b
Adenocarcinoma, ColorectalGsk3b
Alzheimer DiseaseGsk3a , Gsk3b
Amyotrophic Lateral SclerosisGsk3a , Gsk3b
Aortic Aneurysm, AbdominalGys1
Arrhythmias, CardiacGyg1
Arthritis, ExperimentalGsk3b
Bipolar DisorderGsk3a , Gsk3b
Brain InjuriesGsk3b
BurnsGsk3b
Cardiac Output, LowPpp1ca
CardiomegalyGsk3b
Cardiomyopathy, DilatedGsk3a , Ppp1ca
Cardiovascular DiseasesGys1
Ceroid Lipofuscinosis, Neuronal, 6Gsk3b
Cognition DisordersGsk3b
Colonic NeoplasmsGsk3b
Colorectal NeoplasmsPgm1
Congenital Disorders of GlycosylationPgm1
Congenital HyperinsulinismGck
Coronary Artery DiseaseGck
Depressive DisorderGsk3a , Gsk3b
Diabetes MellitusGck , Ppp1r3a
Diabetes Mellitus, ExperimentalGck , Gsk3a
Diabetes Mellitus, Permanent NeonatalGck
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2Gck , Gsk3b , Ppp1r3a
Diabetes, GestationalGck
Endometrial NeoplasmsPgm1
Fatty LiverGck
Genetic Diseases, InbornGbe1
Glycogen Storage DiseaseGyg1 , Gys2
Glycogen Storage Disease 0, LiverGys2
Glycogen Storage Disease 0, MuscleGys1
Glycogen Storage Disease IV, Combined Hepatic and MyopathicGbe1
Glycogen Storage Disease Type IVGbe1
Glycogen Storage Disease XIVPgm1
Glycogen Storage Disease XVGyg1
GSD IV, Classic HepaticGbe1
GSD IV, Neuromuscular Form, ChildhoodGbe1
GSD IV, Neuromuscular Form, CongenitalGbe1
Hearing Loss, Cisplatin-InducedGsk3b
Heart FailureGsk3b , Ppp1ca
Hyperferritinemia, Hereditary, with Congenital CataractsGys1
HyperglycemiaGck
Hyperinsulinemic Hypoglycemia, Familial, 3Gck
HyperinsulinismGck
HypertensionGck , Gsk3b
Hypertrophy, Left VentricularGsk3a
HypoglycemiaGck , Ppp1r3a
Immunodeficiency 23Pgm3
Insulin ResistanceGck , Gys1 , Ppp1r3a
Intestinal NeoplasmsGsk3b
Job SyndromePgm3
Lipodystrophy, Familial PartialPpp1r3a
Liver Cirrhosis, ExperimentalGck , Ppp1r3b , Ppp1r3c
Liver InjuryGck
Lymphoma, Mantle-CellGsk3b
Mason-Type DiabetesGck
Maturity-Onset Diabetes of the Young, Type 2Gck
Muscle WeaknessGyg1
Muscular AtrophyGsk3b
Myocardial InfarctionGsk3b
Myocardial IschemiaGyg1 , Pgm1
Myocardial Reperfusion InjuryGsk3b
neonatal diabetes mellitusGck
NeuroferritinopathyGys1
Noonan syndrome-like disorder with loose anagen hair 2Ppp1cb
ObesityGck
Ovarian NeoplasmsPpp1cc
Parkinson DiseaseGsk3b
Parkinsonian DisordersGsk3a
PeritonitisGsk3b
Pleomorphic Xanthoastrocytoma Gck , Ppp1r3a
PoisoningGsk3b
Polyglucosan Body Disease, Adult FormGbe1
POLYGLUCOSAN BODY MYOPATHY 2Gyg1
Prostatic NeoplasmsGsk3b , Ppp1r3c
SchizophreniaGsk3a , Gsk3b
SepsisGsk3b
Status EpilepticusGsk3b
TauopathiesGsk3b
TeratomaPgm1 , Pgm3
Uterine Cervical NeoplasmsPgm3
Pathway Annotations Associated with Genes in the glycogen biosynthetic pathway
Pathway TermsGene Symbols
adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathwayPpp1ca , Ppp1cb , Ppp1r3d
Alzheimer disease pathwayGsk3b
amino sugar metabolic pathwayGck , Pgm1 , Pgm3
B cell receptor signaling pathwayGsk3b
basal cell carcinoma pathwayGsk3b
Bone morphogenetic proteins signaling pathwayGsk3b , Ppp1ca
butirosin and neomycin biosynthetic pathwayGck
calcium/calmodulin dependent kinase 2 signaling pathwayPpp1cc
cell cycle pathway, mitoticGsk3b
chemokine mediated signaling pathwayGsk3a , Gsk3b
colorectal cancer pathwayGsk3b
dopamine signaling pathwayPpp1ca , Ppp1cb , Ppp1cc
endometrial cancer pathwayGsk3b
epidermal growth factor/neuregulin signaling pathwayGsk3b
follicle-stimulating hormone signaling pathwayPpp1ca
forkhead class A signaling pathwayGck
french type sialuria disease pathwayPgm3
fructose-1,6-diphosphatase deficiency pathwayPgm1
galactose metabolic pathwayGck , Pgm1
GALE deficiency pathwayGck , Pgm1
GALK deficiency pathwayGck , Pgm1
GALT deficiency pathwayGck , Pgm1
gluconeogenesis pathwayGck , Pgm1
glycogen biosynthetic pathwayGbe1 , Gck , Gsk3a , Gsk3b , Gyg1 , Gys1 , Gys2 , Pgm1 , Pgm2 , Pgm3 , Ppp1ca , Ppp1cb , Ppp1cc , Ppp1r3a , Ppp1r3b , Ppp1r3c , Ppp1r3d , Ppp1r3e
glycogen degradation pathwayPgm1 , Pgm2 , Pgm3 , Ppp1ca , Ppp1cb , Ppp1cc , Ppp1r3a , Ppp1r3b , Ppp1r3c , Ppp1r3d , Ppp1r3e
glycogen metabolic pathwayGck , Gys2
glycogen storage disease pathway, type IAPgm1
glycogen storage disease pathway, type IBPgm1
glycogen storage disease pathway, type IIIGbe1 , Gck , Gys2 , Pgm1
glycogen storage disease pathway, type IV.Gbe1 , Gck , Gys2 , Pgm1
glycogen storage disease pathway, type VIGbe1 , Gck , Gys2 , Pgm1
glycolysis pathwayGck , Pgm1
glycolysis/gluconeogenesis pathwayGck , Pgm1
Hedgehog signaling pathwayGsk3b
hepatitis C virus infection pathwayGsk3b
hexosamine biosynthetic pathwayPgm3
histamine signaling pathway, immunologicalPpp1ca
hypoxia inducible factor pathwayGck , Pgm1
influenza A virus infection pathwayGsk3b
insulin responsive facilitative sugar transporter mediated glucose transport pathwayGsk3b , Gys1 , Ppp1cc , Ppp1r3a
insulin secretion pathwayGck
insulin signaling pathwayGck , Gsk3b , Gys1 , Gys2 , Ppp1ca , Ppp1cb , Ppp1cc , Ppp1r3a , Ppp1r3b , Ppp1r3c , Ppp1r3d
long term depressionGsk3b
long term potentiationPpp1ca , Ppp1cb , Ppp1cc
luteinizing hormone signaling pathwayPpp1ca
maturity onset diabetes of the young pathwayGck
measles infection pathwayGsk3b
neurotrophic factor signaling pathwayGsk3b
nuclear factor, erythroid 2 like 2 signaling pathwayGsk3a , Gsk3b
nucleotide sugar metabolic pathwayGck , Pgm1 , Pgm3
p53 signaling pathwayGsk3b
pentose phosphate pathwayPgm1
phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-Akt signaling pathwayGsk3a , Gsk3b
phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase deficiency pathwayPgm1
prostate cancer pathwayGsk3b
purine metabolic pathwayPgm1
Reelin signaling pathwayGsk3b
ribose 5-phosphate isomerase deficiency pathwayPgm1
serotonin signaling pathway via receptors engaging G alphas protein familyPpp1ca
sialic acid storage disease pathwayPgm3
starch and sucrose metabolic pathwayGbe1 , Gck , Gys1 , Gys2 , Pgm1
Sucrase-isomaltase deficiency pathwayGbe1 , Gck , Gys2 , Pgm1
T cell receptor signaling pathwayGsk3b
Tay-Sachs disease pathwayPgm3
transaldolase deficiency pathwayPgm1
transforming growth factor-beta Smad dependent signaling pathwayPpp1ca
trehalose degradation pathwayGck
triosephosphate isomerase deficiency pathwayPgm1
type 2 diabetes mellitus pathwayGck
Wnt signaling pathwayGsk3b
Wnt signaling, canonical pathwayGsk3a , Gsk3b
Phenotype Annotations Associated with Genes in the glycogen biosynthetic pathway

References Associated with the glycogen biosynthetic pathway:

Ontology Path Diagram:

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