VISUAL PHOTOTRANSDUCTION PATHWAY (PW:0000962)

View Ontology Report

Description

Two types of photoreceptors in the vertebrate retina mediate the light response: the rods which mediate vision in dim light and the cones which mediate bright light and color vision. Both sense light with a visual pigment composed of vitamin A derived chromophore 11-cis retinal and a G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) to which the chromophore is covalently bound. Humans have one rod and three cones for long, medium- and short-waves. Rods and cones differ in their morphology, details of signaling

Pathway Diagram:

Ariadne Genomics Inc. transducin complex visual perception processing Pde6 complex Gucy2f GRK7 Cngb1 Ca-in --+> Rcvrn ca efflux ---| Rcvrn Rcvrn Guca1a --+> Gucy2e Gucy2e Guca1a Guca1b --+> Gucy2f Guca1b Cnga1 Cnga3 cGMP_restored ---- Cnga1 Cngb3 Cngb3 ---> Ca-in ca efflux ---> Ca-out Rho --+> Gnat1 cone opsins --+> Gnat2 Guca1a ---- Gucy2e Guca1b ---- Gucy2f Gnat2 --+> Pde6 complex Gnat1 --+> Pde6 complex Gnat1 cGMP_restored ---- Cngb1 cGMP_restored ---- Cnga3 cGMP_restored ---- Cngb3 Slc24a1 Slc24a2 Grk1 ---| Rho Rho ---- Sag GRK7 ---| cone opsins Arr3 ---- cone opsins light --+> 11-cis-retinal light 11-cis-retinal ---- cone opsins Rgs9 complex ---| Gnat1 Sag Grk1 cone opsins ---- transducin complex Rho ---- transducin complex Gnat2 GTP ---> cGMP_restored cGMP ---> 5'-GMP glutamate ---| OFF-cone bipolar cell Arr3 11-cis-retinal ---- Rho Rgs9 complex OFF-cone bipolar cell Rcvrn ---| Grk1 glutamate Ca-in cGMP_restored 5'-GMP cGMP GTP Ca-out ca efflux membrane hyperpolarization ---| glutamate membrane hyperpolarization Rho cone opsins Cnga1 ---> Ca-in Cngb1 ---> Ca-in Cnga3 ---> Ca-in central nervous system glutamate --+> ON-cone bipolar cell ON-cone bipolar cell rod bipolar cell glutamate --+> rod bipolar cell ca efflux --+> Guca1b Ca-in ---| Guca1b Ca-in ---| Guca1a ca efflux --+> Guca1a retinoid cycle metabolic pathway 11-cis-retinal
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Genes in Pathway:

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visual phototransduction pathway term browser
Symbol Object Name JBrowse Chr Start Stop Reference
G Arr3 arrestin 3 JBrowse link X 70,438,590 70,452,140 RGD:6893539
RGD:6893556
G Arrb1 arrestin, beta 1 JBrowse link 1 164,502,099 164,573,947 RGD:6907045
G Arrb2 arrestin, beta 2 JBrowse link 10 57,040,252 57,048,045 RGD:6907045
G Calm1 calmodulin 1 JBrowse link 6 124,217,241 124,225,292 RGD:6907045
G Calm2 calmodulin 2 JBrowse link 6 11,067,675 11,080,078 RGD:6907045
G Calm3 calmodulin 3 JBrowse link 1 78,844,520 78,851,628 RGD:6907045
G Calml3 calmodulin-like 3 JBrowse link 17 70,070,458 70,073,697 RGD:6907045
G Calml5 calmodulin-like 5 JBrowse link 17 70,044,956 70,045,886 RGD:6907045
G Cnga1 cyclic nucleotide gated channel alpha 1 JBrowse link 14 38,155,771 38,171,107 RGD:6893549
RGD:6907045
G Cnga3 cyclic nucleotide gated channel alpha 3 JBrowse link 9 43,807,412 43,858,225 RGD:6893549
G Cngb1 cyclic nucleotide gated channel beta 1 JBrowse link 19 10,142,440 10,206,618 RGD:6893549
RGD:6907045
G Cngb3 cyclic nucleotide gated channel beta 3 JBrowse link 5 33,097,353 33,507,467 RGD:6893549
G Gnat1 G protein subunit alpha transducin 1 JBrowse link 8 116,433,302 116,438,038 RGD:6893539
RGD:6907045
G Gnat2 G protein subunit alpha transducin 2 JBrowse link 2 210,880,754 210,890,765 RGD:6893539
RGD:6907045
G Gnat3 G protein subunit alpha transducin 3 JBrowse link 4 13,827,764 13,878,126 RGD:6907045
G Gnb1 G protein subunit beta 1 JBrowse link 5 172,914,025 172,981,403 RGD:6893539
RGD:6907045
G Gnb3 G protein subunit beta 3 JBrowse link 4 157,352,558 157,359,237 RGD:6893539
G Gnb5 G protein subunit beta 5 JBrowse link 8 82,248,951 82,286,493 RGD:6893539
G Gngt1 G protein subunit gamma transducin 1 JBrowse link 4 28,972,339 28,975,419 RGD:6893539
RGD:6907045
G Gngt2 G protein subunit gamma transducin 2 JBrowse link 10 83,654,321 83,658,601 RGD:6893539
G Grk1 G protein-coupled receptor kinase 1 JBrowse link 16 81,153,489 81,165,442 RGD:6893555
RGD:6907045
G Guca1a guanylate cyclase activator 1A JBrowse link 9 15,609,804 15,620,030 RGD:6893539
RGD:6907045
G Guca1b guanylate cyclase activator 1B JBrowse link 9 15,621,083 15,629,017 RGD:6893539
RGD:6907045
G Gucy2d guanylate cyclase 2D, retinal JBrowse link 10 55,835,695 55,851,235 RGD:6893539
RGD:6907045
G Gucy2e guanylate cyclase 2E JBrowse link 1 163,398,891 163,433,594 RGD:6907045
G Gucy2f guanylate cyclase 2F JBrowse link X 113,372,240 113,474,210 RGD:6893539
RGD:6907045
G Opn1mw opsin 1 (cone pigments), medium-wave-sensitive JBrowse link X 156,569,683 156,589,907 RGD:6893536
G Opn1sw opsin 1, short wave sensitive JBrowse link 4 56,653,840 56,656,980 RGD:6893536
G Pde6a phosphodiesterase 6A JBrowse link 18 56,544,652 56,617,480 RGD:6893540
RGD:6907045
G Pde6b phosphodiesterase 6B JBrowse link 14 2,328,690 2,371,913 RGD:6893540
RGD:6907045
G Pde6c phosphodiesterase 6C JBrowse link 1 256,822,099 256,885,879 RGD:6893540
G Pde6g phosphodiesterase 6G JBrowse link 10 109,620,499 109,625,214 RGD:6893540
G Pde6h phosphodiesterase 6H JBrowse link 4 170,947,723 170,963,046 RGD:6893540
G Rcvrn recoverin JBrowse link 10 54,246,250 54,253,996 RGD:6893539
RGD:6907045
G Rgs9 regulator of G-protein signaling 9 JBrowse link 10 97,509,971 97,582,188 RGD:6893539
RGD:6907045
G Rgs9bp regulator of G protein signaling 9 binding protein JBrowse link 1 91,855,270 91,855,983 RGD:6893539
G Rho rhodopsin JBrowse link 4 147,832,136 147,837,298 RGD:6893536
RGD:6907045
G Sag S-antigen visual arrestin JBrowse link 9 94,926,901 94,972,162 RGD:6893539
RGD:6893556
G Slc24a1 solute carrier family 24 member 1 JBrowse link 8 70,409,683 70,438,352 RGD:6893550
RGD:6907045
G Slc24a2 solute carrier family 24 member 2 JBrowse link 5 105,336,287 105,579,959 RGD:6893550
altered visual phototransduction pathway term browser
Symbol Object Name JBrowse Chr Start Stop Reference
G Cnga1 cyclic nucleotide gated channel alpha 1 JBrowse link 14 38,155,771 38,171,107 RGD:8547536
G Cngb1 cyclic nucleotide gated channel beta 1 JBrowse link 19 10,142,440 10,206,618 RGD:8547536
G Guca1b guanylate cyclase activator 1B JBrowse link 9 15,621,083 15,629,017 RGD:8547536
G Pde6a phosphodiesterase 6A JBrowse link 18 56,544,652 56,617,480 RGD:8547536
G Pde6b phosphodiesterase 6B JBrowse link 14 2,328,690 2,371,913 RGD:8547536
G Pde6g phosphodiesterase 6G JBrowse link 10 109,620,499 109,625,214 RGD:8547536
G Rho rhodopsin JBrowse link 4 147,832,136 147,837,298 RGD:8547536
G Sag S-antigen visual arrestin JBrowse link 9 94,926,901 94,972,162 RGD:8547536

Altered Pathway:

Additional Elements in Pathway:

(includes Gene Groups, Small Molecules, Other Pathways..etc.)
Object TypePathway ObjectPathway Object Description
ProteinStructuresa list of selected structures also provided at the end of the description
Gene Groupcone opsinsthe opsin(s) genes
ComplexPde6 complexthe phosphodiesterase complex, target of transducin
Complextransducin complexThe photoreceptor specific heterotrimeric G protein
ComplexRgs9 complexthe regulator of transducin with GAP activity

Pathway Gene Annotations

Disease Annotations Associated with Genes in the visual phototransduction pathway
Disease TermsGene Symbols
Achromatopsia 1Cnga3 , Cngb3
Achromatopsia 2Cnga3
Achromatopsia 3Cngb3
Achromatopsia 4Gnat2
Achromatopsia 5Pde6c
Alzheimer DiseaseCalm1
Amaurosis Congenita of Leber, Type 1Gucy2d
Amphetamine-Related DisordersArrb2 , Pde6c
Anxiety DisordersGnb1
Arteriovenous FistulaArrb1 , Arrb2
Arthritis, ExperimentalArrb1 , Arrb2
Attention Deficit Disorder with HyperactivityGnb5
Blindness, CorticalGnb1
Blue Cone MonochromatismOpn1mw
Carotid Artery DiseasesGnb3
Cerebral HemorrhageSlc24a1
Cleft PalateGnb1
Cocaine-Related DisordersCalm1
ColitisArrb1
Color Vision DefectsCnga3 , Cngb3 , Gnat2 , Pde6c , Pde6h
Colorblindness, Partial, Deutan SeriesOpn1mw
Colorectal NeoplasmsGnb5
Cone Dystrophy 3Guca1a , Pde6h
Cone Dystrophy 4Pde6c
cone-rod dystrophyGuca1a , Guca1b
Cone-Rod Dystrophy 2Guca1a , Guca1b
Cone-Rod Dystrophy 5Gucy2d
Coronary Artery DiseaseGnb3
Depressive DisorderGnb1 , Gnb3
Depressive Disorder, MajorCalm2
Developmental DisabilitiesGnb1 , Gnb5
Diabetes MellitusGnb3
Diabetes Mellitus, ExperimentalGnat1 , Gnat3 , Grk1
Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2Calm1 , Gnb3
Disease Models, AnimalPde6b
Dyskinesia, Drug-InducedRgs9
DystoniaGnb1
EpilepsyGnb1
Epilepsy, Tonic-ClonicGnb1
Eye DiseasesCngb3
Eye Diseases, HereditaryGuca1a , Rgs9
Failure to ThriveGnb1
Fundus AlbipunctatusRho
Genetic Diseases, InbornGnb1
Heart FailureArrb1 , Grk1
HyperlipidemiasGnb3
HypertensionGnb3
Hypertension, EssentialGnb3
HypothyroidismGnb1
Ichthyosis, Lamellar, 5Gucy2d
Infertility, MaleGnat3
Insulin ResistanceGnb3
INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDER WITH CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAGnb5
Intellectual DisabilityGnb1
Language Development DisordersGnb5
Leber Congenital AmaurosisGuca1b
Liver CirrhosisArrb1
Liver Cirrhosis, ExperimentalArrb2 , Gngt2
Liver Neoplasms, ExperimentalArrb2
Long QT Syndrome 1Calm3
LONG QT SYNDROME 14Calm1
Marijuana AbuseCalm1
MelanomaCnga3 , Guca1b
Microphthalmia, Syndromic 1Arr3
Muscle HypotoniaGnb1
Myelodysplastic SyndromesGnb1
Night BlindnessGnat1 , Grk1 , Rho
Night Blindness, Congenital StationaryGnat1 , Pde6b , Rho , Sag , Slc24a1
Night Blindness, Congenital Stationary, Autosomal Dominant 1Rho
Night Blindness, Congenital Stationary, Autosomal Dominant 2Pde6b
Night Blindness, Congenital Stationary, Autosomal Dominant 3Gnat1
Night Blindness, Congenital Stationary, Type 1DSlc24a1
NIGHT BLINDNESS, CONGENITAL STATIONARY, TYPE 1GGnat1
Night Blindness, Congenital Stationary, Type 1HGnb3
Nystagmus, PathologicGucy2d
ObesityGnb3
Oguchi DiseaseGrk1 , Sag
Phencyclidine AbuseCalm1
Pleomorphic Xanthoastrocytoma Gnat3 , Gngt1 , Opn1sw
Polymorphic Catecholergic Ventricular TachycardiaCalm1
Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-LymphomaGnb1
Prolonged Electroretinal Response SuppressionRgs9 , Rgs9bp
Prostatic NeoplasmsCnga1 , Gngt1 , Pde6b
Psychoses, Substance-InducedRgs9
Retinal Cone Dystrophy 2Gucy2d
Retinal Cone Dystrophy 3APde6h
Retinal DegenerationGucy2f , Pde6b , Rho
Retinal DiseasesGrk1
Retinal DystrophiesCnga1 , Cnga3 , Cngb1 , Cngb3 , Gucy2d , Pde6a , Pde6b , Pde6c
Retinitis PigmentosaCnga1 , Cngb1 , Guca1a , Guca1b , Gucy2d , Pde6a , Pde6b , Pde6c , Pde6g , Rho , Sag
Retinitis Pigmentosa 4Rho
Retinitis Pigmentosa 40Pde6b
Retinitis Pigmentosa 43Pde6a
Retinitis Pigmentosa 45Cngb1
Retinitis Pigmentosa 47Sag
Retinitis Pigmentosa 48Guca1b
Retinitis Pigmentosa 49Cnga1 , Cngb1
Retinitis Pigmentosa 57Pde6g
Romano-Ward SyndromeCalm3
SchizophreniaRgs9
SeizuresGnat3 , Gnb1 , Gnb3
Smith-Magenis SyndromeGngt2 , Pde6g , Rgs9
Stargardt Disease 1Cngb3
StrabismusGnb1
TritanopiaOpn1sw
UveitisSag
Ventricular tachycardia, catecholaminergic polymorphic, 1Calm1
Ventricular tachycardia, catecholaminergic polymorphic, 4Calm1
Weight GainCalm1 , Gnb3
Pathway Annotations Associated with Genes in the visual phototransduction pathway
Pathway TermsGene Symbols
acebutolol pharmacodynamics pathwayCalm1
adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling pathwayCalm1 , Calm2 , Calm3
adenosine signaling pathwayGnb1
adrenergic beta receptor agonist and beta-blocker pharmacodynamics pathwayCalm1
altered visual phototransduction pathwayCnga1 , Cngb1 , Guca1b , Pde6a , Pde6b , Pde6g , Rho , Sag
Alzheimer disease pathwayCalm1 , Calm2 , Calm3 , Calml3 , Calml5
amiodarone pharmacodynamics pathwayCalm1
amlodipine pharmacodynamics pathwayCalm1
angiotensin II signaling pathway via AT1 receptorArrb1 , Arrb2
atenolol pharmacodynamics pathwayCalm1
betaxolol pharmacodynamics pathwayCalm1
bisoprolol pharmacodynamics pathwayCalm1
bupranolol drug pathwayCalm1
bupranolol pharmacodynamics pathwayCalm1
calcium signaling pathway via the calcium-sensing receptorArrb1 , Arrb2
calcium transport pathwayCnga1 , Cnga3 , Cngb1 , Cngb3 , Slc24a1 , Slc24a2
calcium/calcium-mediated signaling pathwayCalm1 , Calm2 , Calm3 , Calml3 , Calml5 , Cnga1 , Cnga3 , Cngb1 , Cngb3 , Guca1a , Guca1b , Rcvrn , Slc24a1 , Slc24a2
calcium/calmodulin dependent kinase 2 signaling pathwayCalm1 , Calm2 , Calm3
carvedilol pharmacodynamics pathwayCalm1
chemokine mediated signaling pathwayArrb1 , Arrb2 , Gnb1 , Gnb3 , Gnb5 , Gngt1 , Gngt2 , Grk1
corticotropin-releasing hormone signaling pathwayArrb1 , Arrb2
diltiazem pharmacodynamics pathwayCalm1
disopyramide pharmacodynamics pathwayCalm1
dobutamine pharmacodynamics pathwayCalm1
dopamine signaling pathway via D1 family of receptorsArrb1 , Arrb2 , Gnb1 , Rgs9
dopamine signaling pathway via D2 family of receptorsArrb1 , Arrb2 , Rgs9
eicosanoid signaling pathwayArr3 , Arrb2 , Gnb1 , Gnb5
endocytosis pathwayArrb1 , Arrb2 , Grk1
epinephrine signaling pathway via adrenergic receptor betaArrb1 , Arrb2
esmolol pharmacodynamics pathwayCalm1
flecainde pharmacodynamics pathwayCalm1
follicle-stimulating hormone signaling pathwayGnb1
fosphenytoin pharmacodynamics pathwayCalm1
G protein mediated signaling pathway via Galpha12/Galpha13 familyGnb1
G protein mediated signaling pathway via Galphai familyRgs9
G protein mediated signaling pathway via Galphas familyRgs9
glioma pathwayCalm1 , Calm2 , Calm3 , Calml3 , Calml5
glutamate signaling pathwayGnb1 , Gnb3 , Gnb5 , Gngt1 , Gngt2
glycogen degradation pathwayCalm1 , Calm2 , Calm3
gonadotropin-releasing hormone signaling pathwayCalm1 , Calm2 , Calm3 , Calml3 , Calml5
Hedgehog signaling pathwayArrb2 , Gnb1
histamine signaling pathway, immunologicalGnb1
ibutilide pharmacodynamics pathwayCalm1
insulin responsive facilitative sugar transporter mediated glucose transport pathwayCalm1 , Calm2 , Calm3
insulin signaling pathwayCalm1 , Calm2 , Calm3 , Calml3 , Calml5
isoprenaline pharmacodynamics pathwayCalm1
isradipine pharmacodynamics pathwayCalm1
kinin signaling pathwayArrb1 , Arrb2
levobunolol pharmacodynamics pathwayCalm1
lidocaine pharmacodynamics pathwayCalm1
long term potentiationCalm1 , Calm2 , Calm3 , Calml3 , Calml5
luteinizing hormone signaling pathwayGnb1
melanocortin system pathwayGnb1
metoprolol pharmacodynamics pathwayCalm1
mexiletine pharmacodynamics pathwayCalm1
mitogen activated protein kinase signaling pathwayArrb1 , Arrb2
Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection pathwayCalm1 , Calm2 , Calm3 , Calml3 , Calml5
N-cadherin signaling pathwayCalm1 , Calm2 , Calm3
nadolol pharmacodynamics pathwayCalm1
nebivolol pharmacodynamics pathwayCalm1
neurotrophic factor signaling pathwayCalm1 , Calm2 , Calm3 , Calml3 , Calml5
nifedipine pharmacodynamics pathwayCalm1
nimodipine pharmacodynamics pathwayCalm1
nisoldipine pharmacodynamics pathwayCalm1
nitrendipine pharmacodynamics pathwayCalm1
nuclear factor kappa B signaling pathwayArrb2
p38 MAPK signaling pathwayCalm1 , Calm2 , Calm3
parathyroid hormone signaling pathwayArrb1 , Arrb2
penbutolol pharmacodynamics pathwayCalm1
phenytoin pharmacodynamics pathwayCalm1
phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling pathwayCalm1 , Calm2 , Calm3 , Calml3 , Calml5
pindolol pharmacodynamics pathwayCalm1
procainamide pharmacodynamics pathwayCalm1
propranolol pharmacodynamics pathwayCalm1
prostaglandin D2 signaling pathwayGnb1
prostaglandin I2 signaling pathwayGnb1
purine metabolic pathwayGucy2d , Gucy2e , Gucy2f , Pde6a , Pde6b , Pde6c , Pde6h
quinidine pharmacodynamics pathwayCalm1
retinitis pigmentosa pathwayCnga1 , Cngb1 , Guca1b , Pde6a , Pde6b , Pde6g , Rho , Sag
retinoid cycle metabolic pathwayOpn1mw , Opn1sw , Rho
serotonin signaling pathway via receptors engaging G alphas protein familyGnb1
sotalol pharmacodynamics pathwayCalm1
timolol pharmacodynamics pathwayCalm1
transforming growth factor-beta Smad dependent signaling pathwayArrb2
type II interferon signaling pathwayCalm1 , Calm2 , Calm3
vascular endothelial growth factor signaling pathwayCalm1 , Calm2 , Calm3
vasopressin signaling pathway via receptor type 2Gnb1
verapamil pharmacodynamics pathwayCalm1
visual phototransduction pathwayArr3 , Arrb1 , Arrb2 , Calm1 , Calm2 , Calm3 , Calml3 , Calml5 , Cnga1 , Cnga3 , Cngb1 , Cngb3 , Gnat1 , Gnat2 , Gnat3 , Gnb1 , Gnb3 , Gnb5 , Gngt1 , Gngt2 , Grk1 , Guca1a , Guca1b , Gucy2d , Gucy2e , Gucy2f , Opn1mw , Opn1sw , Pde6a , Pde6b , Pde6c , Pde6g , Pde6h , Rcvrn , Rgs9 , Rgs9bp , Rho , Sag , Slc24a1 , Slc24a2
Wnt signaling, non-canonical pathwayArrb2

References Associated with the visual phototransduction pathway:

Ontology Path Diagram:

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Import into Pathway Studio: